An Austrian black metal outfit with a penchant for pairing alternately aggressive and ambient black metal with lyrics that invoke author J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle Earth mythology, Summoning was formed in the city of Vienna in 1993 around the talents of Michael Gregor, Richard Lederer, and Alexander Trondly, who go by the stage names Silenius, Protector, and Trifixion, respectively. The group issued its debut album, Lugburz, in 1995 via Napalm Records, followed closely by Minas Morgul (also in 1995), the former of which would prove to be the first and last outing with Trondly. Gregor and Lederer would continue as a duo for subsequent albums Dol Guldur (1996), Stronghold (1999), Let Mortal Heroes Sing Your Fame (2001), Oath Bound (2006), Old Mornings Dawn (2013), and With Doom We Come (2018) with the help of a rotating cast of guest musicians.
James Christopher Monger